Sections#

In a simple game, the whole viewport is used to display the game “map”. In more advanced games it’s fairly normal to have this viewport divided into different “sections” with different usages. Areas where different information is displayed and processed. For example you can have a menu at the top, some info panel at the right and the game main “screen” (the “map”) covering the rest of the viewport.

To achieve this separation of game logic you have Sections. A Section is a way to divide a View space into smaller parts, each one will then receive events redirected depending on configuration and the space of the view occupied. Sections can isolate code that otherwise goes packed together in a View . This way the code remains exactly where it belongs and not mixed together with code from other parts of the program.

By configuring a Section you can capture some events or for example only capture certain keys from keyboard events. Also you can configure which events are propagated to other underlying sections or even to the view itself.

Sections can also be “modal” meaning that they will capture all the events first but draw last and also will prevent other views from receiving the on_update event.

Also note that if you don’t use sections in your code, nothing changes. Even the SectionManager is not created if you don’t add sections.

Key features of Sections:

  • Divide the screen into logical components (Sections).

  • Event dispatching: a Section will capture mouse events based on the space occupied from the view. Also keyboard events will be captured based on configuration.

  • Prevent dispatching: a Section can be configured to prevent dispatching events captured or let events flow to other sections underneath.

  • Event capturing order: based on a Section insertion order you can configure the order in which sections will capture events.

  • Draw order: you can configure the order in which sections are drawn (sections can overlap!).

  • Section “enable” property to show or hide sections. You can toogle that.

  • Modal Sections: sections that draw last but capture all events and also stop other sections from updating.

  • Automated camera swich: Sections will try to activate and deactivate cameras when changing between sections.

Important: You don’t need to cover 100% of the View with sections. Sections can work with the View as well. Also, Sections can overlap.

A simple example#

A small program without the use of sections needs to perform some checks inside a on_mouse_release event to know what to do depending on the mouse position.

For example maybe if the mouse is on top of the map you want to do something, but if the mouse is somewhere else you may need to do other things.

This is what this somehow looks without sections:

class MyView(arcade.View):
    # ...

    def on_mouse_release(x: int, y: int, *args, **kwargs):
        if x > 700:
            # click in the side
            do_some_logic_when_side_clicking()
        else:
            # click on the game map
            do_something_in_the_game_map()

This code can and often become long and with a lot of checks to know what to do.

By using Sections this is what looks like:

class Map(arcade.Section):

    # ...

    def on_mouse_release(x: int, y: int, *args, **kwargs):
        # clicks on the map are handled here
        pass


class Side(arcade.Section):

    # ...

    def on_mouse_release(x: int, y: int, *args, **kwargs):
        # clicks on the side of the screen are handled here
        pass


class MyView(arcade.View):

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.map_section = Map(0, 0, 700, self.window.height)
        self.side_section = SideSpace(700, 0, 100, self.window.height)

        self.add_section(self.map_section)
        self.add_section(self.side_section)

    # ...

How to work with Sections#

To work with sections you first need to have a View. Sections depend on Views and are handled by a special SectionManager inside the View. Don’t worry, 99% of the time you won’t need to interact with the SectionManager.

To create a Section start by inheriting from arcade.Section.

Based on the Section configuration your section will start receiving events from the View SectionManager. A Section has all the events a View has like on_draw, on_update, on_mouse_press, etc.

On instantiation define the positional arguments (left, bottom, width, height) of the section. These are very important properties of a Section: as they define the event capture rectangular area.

Properties of a Section:

position: (left, bottom, width, height):

This are mandatory arguments that you need to provide when instantiating a Section. This is very important as this rectangular positioning will determine the event capture space for mouse related events. This also will help you determine inside a class the space that is holding for example when you want to draw something or calculate coordinates.

name:

A Section can optionally get a name so it will be easier to debug and indetify what Section is doing what. When logging for example is very nice to log the Section name at the beginnig so you have a reference from where the log was generated.

accept_keyboard_keys:

This allows to tell if a Section can receive keyboard events (accept_keyboard_keys=False) or to tell which keyboard keys are captured in this Section (accept_keyboard_keys={arade.key.UP, arcade.key.DOWN})

accept_mouse_events:

This allows to tell if a Section can receive mouse events or which mouse events are accepted. For example: accept_mouse_events={‘on_mouse_move’} means only mouse move events will be captured.

prevent_dispatch:

This tells a Section if it should prevent the dispatching of certain events to other sections down event capture stream. By default a Section will prevent dispatching all handled events. By passing prevent_dispatch={'on_mouse_press'} all events will propagate down the event capture stream except the on_mouse_press event.

prevent_dispatch_view:

This allows to tell if a Section if events (and what events) should not be dispatched to the underlying View. This is handy if you want to do some action in the View code whether or not the event was handled by another Section. By default a Section will prevent dispatching all handled events to the View.

local_mouse_coordinates:

If True the section mouse events will receive x, y coordinates section related to the section dimensions and position (not related to the screen).

enabled:

By default all sections are enabled. This allows to tell if this particuar Section should be enabled or not. If a Section is not enabled, it will not capture any event, draw, update, etc. It will be as it didn’t exist. You can enable and disable sections at any time allowing some cool efects.

modal:

This tells the SectionManager that this Section is modal. This means that the Section will capture all events first and not deliver any events to the underlying sections or view. Also, It will draw last (on top of other on_draw calls). When enabled a modal Section will prevent all other sections from receive on_update events.

draw_order:

This allows to define the draw order this Section will have. This is handy when you have overlaping sections and you want some Section to be drawn ontop of another. By default sections will be draw in the order they are added (except modal sections).

Other handy Section properties:

  • block_updates: if True this section will not have the on_update method called.

  • camera: this is meant to hold a arcade.Camera but it is None by default. The SectionManager will trigger the use of the camera when is needed automatically.

Handy Section: methods:

  • overlaps_with: this will tell if another Section overlaps with this one.

  • mouse_is_on_top: this will tell if given a x, y coodinate, the mouse is on top of the section.

  • get_xy_screen_relative: get screen x, y coordinates from x, y section coordinates.

  • get_xy_section_relative: get section x, y coordinates from x, y screen coordinates.

Sections configuration and logic with an example#

Imagine a game where you have this basic components:

  • A 800x600 screen viewport

  • A game map

  • A menu bar at the top of the screen

  • A side right panel with data from the game

  • Popup messages (dialogs)

With this configuration you can divide this logic into sections with a some configuration.

Lets look what this configuration may look:

import arcade


class Map(arcade.Section):
    #... define all the section logic


class Menu(arcade.Section):
    #... define all the section logic


class Panel(arcade.Section):
    #... define all the section logic


class PopUp(arcade.Section):
    def __init__(message, *args, **kwargs):
        super().__init(*args, **kwargs)
        self.message = message

    # define draw logic, etc...


class MyView(arcade.View):

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.map = Map(left=0, bottom=0, width=600, height=550,
                       name='Map', draw_order=2)
        self.menu = Menu(left=0, bottom=550, width=800, height=50,
                         name='Menu', accept_keyboard_keys=False,
                         accept_mouse_events={'on_mouse_press'})
        self.panel = Panel(left=600, bottom=0, width=200, height=550,
                            name='Panel', accept_keyboard_keys=False,
                            accept_mouse_events=False)

        popup_left = (self.view.window.width // 2) - 200
        popup_bottom = (self.view.window.height // 2) - 100
        popup_width = 400
        popup_height = 200
        self.popup = PopUp(message='', popup_left, popup_bottom, popup_width,
                           popup_height, enabled=False, modal=True)

    def close():
        self.popup.message = 'Are you sure you want to close the view?'
        self.popup.enabled = True

Lets go step by step. First we configure a Map section that will hold the map. This Section will start at left, bottom = 0,0 and will not occupy the whole screen. Mouse events that occur outside of this coordinates will not be handled by the Map event handlers. So Map will only needs to take care of what happens inside the map.

Second we configure a Menu section that will hold some buttons. This menu takes the top space of the screen that the Map has left. The Map + the Menu will occupy 100% of the height of the screen. The menu section is configured to not receive any keyboard events and to only receive on_mouse_press events, ignoring all other type of mouse events.

Third, the Panel also doesn’t receive keyboard events. So the Map is the only handling keyboard events at the moment. Also no mouse events are allowed in the panel. This panel is just to show data.

For the last part notice that we define a section that it will be disabled at first and that is modal. This section will render something with a message. The section is used when the close method of the view is called. Because PopUp is a modal section, when enabled it’s rendered on top of everything. Also, all other section stoped updating and all events are captured by the modal section. So in brief we are “stopping” the world outside the popup section.

Section Unique Events#

There a few unique events that belong to sections and are somehow special in the way they are triggered:

``on_mouse_enter`` and ``on_mouse_leave``:

These events are triggered on two ocasions: when the mouse enters/leaves the view and when the SectionManager detects by mouse motion (or dragging) that the mouse has enter / leaved the section dimensions.

``on_show_section`` and ``on_hide_section``:

There events are triggered only when the section is enabled and under certain circumstances that must be known: - When the section is added or removed from the SectionManager and the View is currently being shown - When the section is enabled or disabled - When Window calls on_show_view or on_hide_view

The Section Manager#

Behind the scenes, when sections are added to the View the SectionManager is what will handle all events instead of the View itself.

You can access the SectionManager by accessing the View.section_manager.

Usually you won’t need to work with the SectionManager, but there are some cases where you will need to work with it.

You add sections usually with View.add_section but the same method exists on the SectionManager. Also you have a remove_section and a clear_sections method.

You can enable or disable the SectionManager to completely enable or disable all sections at once.

There are some other functionality exposed from the SectionManager like get_section_by_name that can also be useful. Check the api to know about those.

Also there are three attributes that can be configured in the SectionManager that are useful and important sometimes.

By default, on_draw, on_update and on_resize are events that will always be triggered in the View before the any section has triggered them. This is the default but you can configure this with the following attributes:

-view_draw_first -view_update_first -view_resize_first

Both three work the same way:

  • True (default) to trigger that event in the View before the sections.

  • False so it’s triggered in the View after sections corresponding methods.

  • None to not trigger that event in the View at all.