Source code for

from __future__ import annotations

import logging
import weakref
from collections import deque
from contextlib import contextmanager
from ctypes import c_char_p, c_float, c_int, cast
from typing import (Any, Deque, Dict, Iterable, List, Optional, Sequence, Set, Tuple,
                    Union, overload, Literal)

import pyglet
from pyglet import gl
from pyglet.window import Window

from .buffer import Buffer
from .compute_shader import ComputeShader
from .framebuffer import DefaultFrameBuffer, Framebuffer
from .glsl import ShaderSource
from .program import Program
from .query import Query
from .texture import Texture2D
from .types import BufferDescription, GLenumLike, PyGLenum
from .vertex_array import Geometry
from ..types import BufferProtocol

LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)

[docs] class Context: """ Represents an OpenGL context. This context belongs to a ``pyglet.Window`` normally accessed through ``window.ctx``. The Context class contains methods for creating resources, global states and commonly used enums. All enums also exist in the ``gl`` module. (``ctx.BLEND`` or ````). """ #: The active context active: Optional["Context"] = None #: The OpenGL api. Usually "gl" or "gles". gl_api: str = "gl" # --- Store the most commonly used OpenGL constants # Texture #: Texture interpolation: Nearest pixel NEAREST = 0x2600 #: Texture interpolation: Linear interpolate LINEAR = 0x2601 #: Texture interpolation: Minification filter for mipmaps NEAREST_MIPMAP_NEAREST = 0x2700 #: Texture interpolation: Minification filter for mipmaps LINEAR_MIPMAP_NEAREST = 0x2701 #: Texture interpolation: Minification filter for mipmaps NEAREST_MIPMAP_LINEAR = 0x2702 #: Texture interpolation: Minification filter for mipmaps LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR = 0x2703 #: Texture wrap mode: Repeat REPEAT = gl.GL_REPEAT # Texture wrap mode: Clamp to border pixel CLAMP_TO_EDGE = gl.GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE # Texture wrap mode: Clamp to border color CLAMP_TO_BORDER = gl.GL_CLAMP_TO_BORDER # Texture wrap mode: Repeat mirrored MIRRORED_REPEAT = gl.GL_MIRRORED_REPEAT # Flags #: Context flag: Blending BLEND = gl.GL_BLEND #: Context flag: Depth testing DEPTH_TEST = gl.GL_DEPTH_TEST #: Context flag: Face culling CULL_FACE = gl.GL_CULL_FACE #: Context flag: Enables ``gl_PointSize`` in vertex or geometry shaders. #: #: When enabled we can write to ``gl_PointSize`` in the vertex shader to specify the point size #: for each individual point. #: #: If this value is not set in the shader the behavior is undefined. This means the points may #: or may not appear depending if the drivers enforce some default value for ``gl_PointSize``. #: #: When disabled :py:attr:`Context.point_size` is used. PROGRAM_POINT_SIZE = gl.GL_PROGRAM_POINT_SIZE # Blend functions #: Blend function ZERO = 0x0000 #: Blend function ONE = 0x0001 #: Blend function SRC_COLOR = 0x0300 #: Blend function ONE_MINUS_SRC_COLOR = 0x0301 #: Blend function SRC_ALPHA = 0x0302 #: Blend function ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA = 0x0303 #: Blend function DST_ALPHA = 0x0304 #: Blend function ONE_MINUS_DST_ALPHA = 0x0305 #: Blend function DST_COLOR = 0x0306 #: Blend function ONE_MINUS_DST_COLOR = 0x0307 # Blend equations #: source + destination FUNC_ADD = 0x8006 #: Blend equations: source - destination FUNC_SUBTRACT = 0x800A #: Blend equations: destination - source FUNC_REVERSE_SUBTRACT = 0x800B #: Blend equations: Minimum of source and destination MIN = 0x8007 #: Blend equations: Maximum of source and destination MAX = 0x8008 # Blend mode shortcuts #: Blend mode shortcut for default blend mode: ``SRC_ALPHA, ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA`` BLEND_DEFAULT = 0x0302, 0x0303 #: Blend mode shortcut for additive blending: ``ONE, ONE`` BLEND_ADDITIVE = 0x0001, 0x0001 #: Blend mode shortcut for pre-multiplied alpha: ``SRC_ALPHA, ONE`` BLEND_PREMULTIPLIED_ALPHA = 0x0302, 0x0001 # VertexArray: Primitives #: Primitive mode POINTS = gl.GL_POINTS # 0 #: Primitive mode LINES = gl.GL_LINES # 1 #: Primitive mode LINE_LOOP = gl.GL_LINE_LOOP # 2 #: Primitive mode LINE_STRIP = gl.GL_LINE_STRIP # 3 #: Primitive mode TRIANGLES = gl.GL_TRIANGLES # 4 #: Primitive mode TRIANGLE_STRIP = gl.GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP # 5 #: Primitive mode TRIANGLE_FAN = gl.GL_TRIANGLE_FAN # 6 #: Primitive mode LINES_ADJACENCY = gl.GL_LINES_ADJACENCY # 10 #: Primitive mode LINE_STRIP_ADJACENCY = gl.GL_LINE_STRIP_ADJACENCY # 11 #: Primitive mode TRIANGLES_ADJACENCY = gl.GL_TRIANGLES_ADJACENCY # 12 #: Primitive mode TRIANGLE_STRIP_ADJACENCY = gl.GL_TRIANGLE_STRIP_ADJACENCY # 13 #: Patch mode (tessellation) PATCHES = gl.GL_PATCHES # The most common error enums _errors = { gl.GL_INVALID_ENUM: "GL_INVALID_ENUM", gl.GL_INVALID_VALUE: "GL_INVALID_VALUE", gl.GL_INVALID_OPERATION: "GL_INVALID_OPERATION", gl.GL_INVALID_FRAMEBUFFER_OPERATION: "GL_INVALID_FRAMEBUFFER_OPERATION", gl.GL_OUT_OF_MEMORY: "GL_OUT_OF_MEMORY", gl.GL_STACK_UNDERFLOW: "GL_STACK_UNDERFLOW", gl.GL_STACK_OVERFLOW: "GL_STACK_OVERFLOW", } _valid_apis = ('gl', 'gles') def __init__(self, window: pyglet.window.Window, gc_mode: str = "context_gc", gl_api: str = "gl"): self._window_ref = weakref.ref(window) if gl_api not in self._valid_apis: raise ValueError(f"Invalid gl_api. Options are: {self._valid_apis}") self.gl_api = gl_api self._limits = Limits(self) self._gl_version = (self._limits.MAJOR_VERSION, self._limits.MINOR_VERSION) Context.activate(self) # Texture unit we use when doing operations on textures to avoid # affecting currently bound textures in the first units self.default_texture_unit: int = self._limits.MAX_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS - 1 # Detect the default framebuffer self._screen = DefaultFrameBuffer(self) # Tracking active program self.active_program: Optional[Program] = None # Tracking active framebuffer. On context creation the window is the default render target self.active_framebuffer: Framebuffer = self._screen self._stats: ContextStats = ContextStats(warn_threshold=1000) # Hardcoded states # This should always be enabled # gl.glEnable(gl.GL_TEXTURE_CUBE_MAP_SEAMLESS) # Set primitive restart index to -1 by default if self.gl_api == "gles": gl.glEnable(gl.GL_PRIMITIVE_RESTART_FIXED_INDEX) else: gl.glEnable(gl.GL_PRIMITIVE_RESTART) self._primitive_restart_index = -1 self.primitive_restart_index = self._primitive_restart_index # Detect support for glProgramUniform. # Assumed to be supported in gles self._ext_separate_shader_objects_enabled = True if self.gl_api == "gl": have_ext = gl.gl_info.have_extension("GL_ARB_separate_shader_objects") self._ext_separate_shader_objects_enabled = self.gl_version >= (4, 1) or have_ext # We enable scissor testing by default. # This is always set to the same value as the viewport # to avoid background color affecting areas outside the viewport gl.glEnable(gl.GL_SCISSOR_TEST) # States self._blend_func: Union[Tuple[int, int], Tuple[int, int, int, int]] = self.BLEND_DEFAULT self._point_size = 1.0 self._flags: Set[int] = set() self._wireframe = False # Options for cull_face self._cull_face_options = { "front": gl.GL_FRONT, "back": gl.GL_BACK, "front_and_back": gl.GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, } self._cull_face_options_reverse = { gl.GL_FRONT: "front", gl.GL_BACK: "back", gl.GL_FRONT_AND_BACK: "front_and_back", } # Context GC as default. We need to call Context.gc() to free opengl resources self._gc_mode = "context_gc" self.gc_mode = gc_mode #: Collected objects to gc when gc_mode is "context_gc". #: This can be used during debugging. self.objects: Deque[Any] = deque() @property def info(self) -> "Limits": """ Get the Limits object for this context containing information about hardware/driver limits and other context information. Example:: >> (16384, 16384) >> NVIDIA Corporation >> NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 SUPER/PCIe/SSE2 """ return self._limits @property def limits(self) -> "Limits": """ Get the Limits object for this context containing information about hardware/driver limits and other context information. .. Warning:: This an old alias for :py:attr:`` and is only around for backwards compatibility. Example:: >> ctx.limits.MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE (16384, 16384) >> ctx.limits.VENDOR NVIDIA Corporation >> ctx.limits.RENDERER NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 SUPER/PCIe/SSE2 """ return self._limits @property def stats(self) -> "ContextStats": """ Get the stats instance containing runtime information about creation and destruction of OpenGL objects. Example:: >> ctx.limits.MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE (16384, 16384) >> ctx.limits.VENDOR NVIDIA Corporation >> ctx.limits.RENDERER NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 SUPER/PCIe/SSE2 """ return self._stats @property def window(self) -> Window: """ The window this context belongs to. :type: ``pyglet.Window`` """ window_ref = self._window_ref() if window_ref is None: raise Exception("Window not available, lost referenz.") return window_ref @property def screen(self) -> Framebuffer: """ The framebuffer for the window. :type: :py:class:`~arcade.Framebuffer` """ return self._screen @property def fbo(self) -> Framebuffer: """ Get the currently active framebuffer. This property is read-only :type: :py:class:`` """ return self.active_framebuffer @property def gl_version(self) -> Tuple[int, int]: """ The OpenGL version as a 2 component tuple. This is the reported OpenGL version from drivers and might be a higher version than you requested. :type: tuple (major, minor) version """ return self._gl_version
[docs] def gc(self) -> int: """ Run garbage collection of OpenGL objects for this context. This is only needed when ``gc_mode`` is ``context_gc``. :return: The number of resources destroyed """ # Loop the array until all objects are gone. # Deleting one object might add new ones so we need # to loop until the deque is empty num_objects = 0 while len(self.objects): obj = self.objects.popleft() obj.delete() num_objects += 1 return num_objects
@property def gc_mode(self) -> str: """ Set the garbage collection mode for OpenGL resources. Supported modes are:: # Default: # Defer garbage collection until ctx.gc() is called # This can be useful to enforce the main thread to # run garbage collection of opengl resources ctx.gc_mode = "context_gc" # Auto collect is similar to python garbage collection. # This is a risky mode. Know what you are doing before using this. ctx.gc_mode = "auto" """ return self._gc_mode @gc_mode.setter def gc_mode(self, value: str): modes = ["auto", "context_gc"] if value not in modes: raise ValueError("Unsupported gc_mode. Supported modes are:", modes) self._gc_mode = value @property def error(self) -> Union[str, None]: """Check OpenGL error Returns a string representation of the occurring error or ``None`` of no errors has occurred. Example:: err = ctx.error if err: raise RuntimeError("OpenGL error: {err}") :type: str """ err = gl.glGetError() if err == gl.GL_NO_ERROR: return None return self._errors.get(err, "GL_UNKNOWN_ERROR")
[docs] @classmethod def activate(cls, ctx: "Context"): """ Mark a context as the currently active one. .. Warning:: Never call this unless you know exactly what you are doing. """ = ctx
[docs] def enable(self, *flags): """ Enables one or more context flags:: # Single flag ctx.enable(ctx.BLEND) # Multiple flags ctx.enable(ctx.DEPTH_TEST, ctx.CULL_FACE) """ self._flags.update(flags) for flag in flags: gl.glEnable(flag)
[docs] def enable_only(self, *args): """ Enable only some flags. This will disable all other flags. This is a simple way to ensure that context flag states are not lingering from other sections of your code base:: # Ensure all flags are disabled (enable no flags) ctx.enable_only() # Make sure only blending is enabled ctx.enable_only(ctx.BLEND) # Make sure only depth test and culling is enabled ctx.enable_only(ctx.DEPTH_TEST, ctx.CULL_FACE) """ self._flags = set(args) if self.BLEND in self._flags: gl.glEnable(self.BLEND) else: gl.glDisable(self.BLEND) if self.DEPTH_TEST in self._flags: gl.glEnable(self.DEPTH_TEST) else: gl.glDisable(self.DEPTH_TEST) if self.CULL_FACE in self._flags: gl.glEnable(self.CULL_FACE) else: gl.glDisable(self.CULL_FACE) if self.gl_api == "gl": if self.PROGRAM_POINT_SIZE in self._flags: gl.glEnable(self.PROGRAM_POINT_SIZE) else: gl.glDisable(self.PROGRAM_POINT_SIZE)
[docs] @contextmanager def enabled(self, *flags): """ Temporarily change enabled flags. Flags that was enabled initially will stay enabled. Only new enabled flags will be reversed when exiting the context. Example:: with ctx.enabled(ctx.BLEND, ctx.CULL_FACE): # Render something """ flags = set(flags) new_flags = flags - self._flags self.enable(*flags) try: yield finally: self.disable(*new_flags)
[docs] @contextmanager def enabled_only(self, *flags): """ Temporarily change enabled flags. Only the supplied flags with be enabled in in the context. When exiting the context the old flags will be restored. Example:: with ctx.enabled_only(ctx.BLEND, ctx.CULL_FACE): # Render something """ old_flags = self._flags self.enable_only(*flags) try: yield finally: self.enable_only(*old_flags)
[docs] def disable(self, *args): """ Disable one or more context flags:: # Single flag ctx.disable(ctx.BLEND) # Multiple flags ctx.disable(ctx.DEPTH_TEST, ctx.CULL_FACE) """ self._flags -= set(args) for flag in args: gl.glDisable(flag)
[docs] def is_enabled(self, flag) -> bool: """ Check if a context flag is enabled :type: bool """ return flag in self._flags
@property def viewport(self) -> Tuple[int, int, int, int]: """ Get or set the viewport for the currently active framebuffer. The viewport simply describes what pixels of the screen OpenGL should render to. Normally it would be the size of the window's framebuffer:: # 4:3 screen ctx.viewport = 0, 0, 800, 600 # 1080p ctx.viewport = 0, 0, 1920, 1080 # Using the current framebuffer size ctx.viewport = 0, 0, *ctx.screen.size :type: tuple (x, y, width, height) """ return self.active_framebuffer.viewport @viewport.setter def viewport(self, value: Tuple[int, int, int, int]): self.active_framebuffer.viewport = value @property def scissor(self) -> Optional[Tuple[int, int, int, int]]: """ Get or set the scissor box for the active framebuffer. This is a shortcut for :py:meth:``. By default the scissor box is disabled and has no effect and will have an initial value of ``None``. The scissor box is enabled when setting a value and disabled when set to ``None``. Example:: # Set and enable scissor box only drawing # in a 100 x 100 pixel lower left area ctx.scissor = 0, 0, 100, 100 # Disable scissoring ctx.scissor = None :type: tuple (x, y, width, height) """ return self.fbo.scissor @scissor.setter def scissor(self, value): self.fbo.scissor = value @property def blend_func(self) -> Union[Tuple[int, int], Tuple[int, int, int, int]]: """ Get or set the blend function. This is tuple specifying how the color and alpha blending factors are computed for the source and destination pixel. When using a two component tuple you specify the blend function for the source and the destination. When using a four component tuple you specify the blend function for the source color, source alpha destination color and destination alpha. (separate blend functions for color and alpha) Supported blend functions are:: ZERO ONE SRC_COLOR ONE_MINUS_SRC_COLOR DST_COLOR ONE_MINUS_DST_COLOR SRC_ALPHA ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA DST_ALPHA ONE_MINUS_DST_ALPHA # Shortcuts DEFAULT_BLENDING # (SRC_ALPHA, ONE_MINUS_SRC_ALPHA) ADDITIVE_BLENDING # (ONE, ONE) PREMULTIPLIED_ALPHA # (SRC_ALPHA, ONE) These enums can be accessed in the ```` module or simply as attributes of the context object. The raw enums from ```` can also be used. Example:: # Using constants from the context object ctx.blend_func = ctx.ONE, ctx.ONE # from the gl module from arcade import gl ctx.blend_func = gl.ONE, gl.ONE :type: tuple (src, dst) """ return self._blend_func @blend_func.setter def blend_func(self, value: Union[Tuple[int, int], Tuple[int, int, int, int]]): self._blend_func = value if len(value) == 2: gl.glBlendFunc(*value) elif len(value) == 4: gl.glBlendFuncSeparate(*value) else: ValueError("blend_func takes a tuple of 2 or 4 values") # def blend_equation(self) @property def front_face(self) -> str: """ Configure front face winding order of triangles. By default the counter-clockwise winding side is the front face. This can be set set to clockwise or counter-clockwise:: ctx.front_face = "cw" ctx.front_face = "ccw" """ value = c_int() gl.glGetIntegerv(gl.GL_FRONT_FACE, value) return "cw" if value.value == gl.GL_CW else "ccw" @front_face.setter def front_face(self, value: str): if value not in ["cw", "ccw"]: raise ValueError("front_face must be 'cw' or 'ccw'") gl.glFrontFace(gl.GL_CW if value == "cw" else gl.GL_CCW) @property def cull_face(self) -> str: """ The face side to cull when face culling is enabled. By default the back face is culled. This can be set to front, back or front_and_back:: ctx.cull_face = "front" ctx.cull_face = "back" ctx.cull_face = "front_and_back" """ value = c_int() gl.glGetIntegerv(gl.GL_CULL_FACE_MODE, value) return self._cull_face_options_reverse[value.value] @cull_face.setter def cull_face(self, value): if value not in self._cull_face_options: raise ValueError("cull_face must be", list(self._cull_face_options.keys())) gl.glCullFace(self._cull_face_options[value]) @property def wireframe(self) -> bool: """ Get or set the wireframe mode. When enabled all primitives will be rendered as lines. :type: bool """ return self._wireframe @wireframe.setter def wireframe(self, value: bool): self._wireframe = value if value: gl.glPolygonMode(gl.GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, gl.GL_LINE) else: gl.glPolygonMode(gl.GL_FRONT_AND_BACK, gl.GL_FILL) @property def patch_vertices(self) -> int: """ Get or set number of vertices that will be used to make up a single patch primitive. Patch primitives are consumed by the tessellation control shader (if present) and subsequently used for tessellation. :type: int """ value = c_int() gl.glGetIntegerv(gl.GL_PATCH_VERTICES, value) return value.value @patch_vertices.setter def patch_vertices(self, value: int): if not isinstance(value, int): raise TypeError("patch_vertices must be an integer") gl.glPatchParameteri(gl.GL_PATCH_VERTICES, value) @property def point_size(self) -> float: """ Set or get the point size. Default is `1.0`. Point size changes the pixel size of rendered points. The min and max values are limited by :py:attr:``. This value usually at least ``(1, 100)``, but this depends on the drivers/vendors. If variable point size is needed you can enable :py:attr:`` and write to ``gl_PointSize`` in the vertex or geometry shader. .. Note:: Using a geometry shader to create triangle strips from points is often a safer way to render large points since you don't have have any size restrictions. """ return self._point_size @point_size.setter def point_size(self, value: float): if self.gl_api == "gl": gl.glPointSize(self._point_size) self._point_size = value @property def primitive_restart_index(self) -> int: """ Get or set the primitive restart index. Default is ``-1``. The primitive restart index can be used in index buffers to restart a primitive. This is for example useful when you use triangle strips or line strips and want to start on a new strip in the same buffer / draw call. """ return self._primitive_restart_index @primitive_restart_index.setter def primitive_restart_index(self, value: int): self._primitive_restart_index = value if self.gl_api == "gl": gl.glPrimitiveRestartIndex(value)
[docs] def finish(self) -> None: """ Wait until all OpenGL rendering commands are completed. This function will actually stall until all work is done and may have severe performance implications. """ gl.glFinish()
[docs] def flush(self) -> None: """ A suggestion to the driver to execute all the queued drawing calls even if the queue is not full yet. This is not a blocking call and only a suggestion. This can potentially be used for speedups when we don't have anything else to render. """ gl.glFlush()
# Various utility methods
[docs] def copy_framebuffer(self, src: Framebuffer, dst: Framebuffer): """ Copies/blits a framebuffer to another one. This operation has many restrictions to ensure it works across different platforms and drivers: * The source and destination framebuffer must be the same size * The formats of the attachments must be the same * Only the source framebuffer can be multisampled * Framebuffers cannot have integer attachments :param src: The framebuffer to copy from :param dst: The framebuffer we copy to """ gl.glBindFramebuffer(gl.GL_READ_FRAMEBUFFER, src._glo) gl.glBindFramebuffer(gl.GL_DRAW_FRAMEBUFFER, dst._glo) gl.glBlitFramebuffer( 0, 0, src.width, src.height, # Make source and dest size the same 0, 0, src.width, src.height, gl.GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | gl.GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT, gl.GL_NEAREST, ) self.active_framebuffer.use(force=True)
# --- Resource methods ---
[docs] def buffer( self, *, data: Optional[BufferProtocol] = None, reserve: int = 0, usage: str = "static" ) -> Buffer: """ Create an OpenGL Buffer object. The buffer will contain all zero-bytes if no data is supplied. Examples:: # Create 1024 byte buffer ctx.buffer(reserve=1024) # Create a buffer with 1000 float values using python's array.array from array import array ctx.buffer(data=array('f', [i for in in range(1000)]) # Create a buffer with 1000 random 32 bit floats using numpy self.ctx.buffer(data=np.random.random(1000).astype("f4")) The ``data`` parameter can be anything that implements the `Buffer Protocol <>`_. This includes ``bytes``, ``bytearray``, ``array.array``, and more. You may need to use typing workarounds for non-builtin types. See :ref:`prog-guide-gl-buffer-protocol-typing` for more information. The ``usage`` parameter enables the GL implementation to make more intelligent decisions that may impact buffer object performance. It does not add any restrictions. If in doubt, skip this parameter and revisit when optimizing. The result are likely to be different between vendors/drivers or may not have any effect. The available values mean the following:: stream The data contents will be modified once and used at most a few times. static The data contents will be modified once and used many times. dynamic The data contents will be modified repeatedly and used many times. :param data: The buffer data. This can be a ``bytes`` instance or any any other object supporting the buffer protocol. :param reserve: The number of bytes to reserve :param usage: Buffer usage. 'static', 'dynamic' or 'stream' """ return Buffer(self, data, reserve=reserve, usage=usage)
[docs] def framebuffer( self, *, color_attachments: Optional[Union[Texture2D, List[Texture2D]]] = None, depth_attachment: Optional[Texture2D] = None ) -> Framebuffer: """Create a Framebuffer. :param color_attachments: List of textures we want to render into :param depth_attachment: Depth texture """ return Framebuffer( self, color_attachments=color_attachments, depth_attachment=depth_attachment )
[docs] def texture( self, size: Tuple[int, int], *, components: int = 4, dtype: str = "f1", data: Optional[BufferProtocol] = None, wrap_x: Optional[PyGLenum] = None, wrap_y: Optional[PyGLenum] = None, filter: Optional[Tuple[PyGLenum, PyGLenum]] = None, samples: int = 0, immutable: bool = False, ) -> Texture2D: """Create a 2D Texture. Wrap modes: ``GL_REPEAT``, ``GL_MIRRORED_REPEAT``, ``GL_CLAMP_TO_EDGE``, ``GL_CLAMP_TO_BORDER`` Minifying filters: ``GL_NEAREST``, ``GL_LINEAR``, ``GL_NEAREST_MIPMAP_NEAREST``, ``GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_NEAREST`` ``GL_NEAREST_MIPMAP_LINEAR``, ``GL_LINEAR_MIPMAP_LINEAR`` Magnifying filters: ``GL_NEAREST``, ``GL_LINEAR`` :param Tuple[int, int] size: The size of the texture :param components: Number of components (1: R, 2: RG, 3: RGB, 4: RGBA) :param dtype: The data type of each component: f1, f2, f4 / i1, i2, i4 / u1, u2, u4 :param data: The texture data (optional). Can be ``bytes`` or any object supporting the buffer protocol. :param wrap_x: How the texture wraps in x direction :param wrap_y: How the texture wraps in y direction :param filter: Minification and magnification filter :param samples: Creates a multisampled texture for values > 0 :param immutable: Make the storage (not the contents) immutable. This can sometimes be required when using textures with compute shaders. """ return Texture2D( self, size, components=components, data=data, dtype=dtype, wrap_x=wrap_x, wrap_y=wrap_y, filter=filter, samples=samples, immutable=immutable, )
[docs] def depth_texture(self, size: Tuple[int, int], *, data: Optional[BufferProtocol] = None) -> Texture2D: """ Create a 2D depth texture. Can be used as a depth attachment in a :py:class:``. :param Tuple[int, int] size: The size of the texture :param data: The texture data (optional). Can be ``bytes`` or any object supporting the buffer protocol. """ return Texture2D(self, size, data=data, depth=True)
[docs] def geometry( self, content: Optional[Sequence[BufferDescription]] = None, index_buffer: Optional[Buffer] = None, mode: Optional[int] = None, index_element_size: int = 4, ): """ Create a Geometry instance. This is Arcade's version of a vertex array adding a lot of convenience for the user. Geometry objects are fairly light. They are mainly responsible for automatically map buffer inputs to your shader(s) and provide various methods for rendering or processing this geometry, The same geometry can be rendered with different programs as long as your shader is using one or more of the input attribute. This means geometry with positions and colors can be rendered with a program only using the positions. We will automatically map what is necessary and cache these mappings internally for performace. In short, the geometry object is a light object that describes what buffers contains and automatically negotiate with shaders/programs. This is a very complex field in OpenGL so the Geometry object provides substantial time savings and greatly reduces the complexity of your code. Geometry also provide rendering methods supporting the following: * Rendering geometry with and without index buffer * Rendering your geometry using instancing. Per instance buffers can be provided or the current instance can be looked up using ``gl_InstanceID`` in shaders. * Running transform feedback shaders that writes to buffers instead the screen. This can write to one or multiple buffer. * Render your geometry with indirect rendering. This means packing multiple meshes into the same buffer(s) and batch drawing them. Examples:: # Single buffer geometry with a vec2 vertex position attribute ctx.geometry([BufferDescription(buffer, '2f', ["in_vert"])], mode=ctx.TRIANGLES) # Single interlaved buffer with two attributes. A vec2 position and vec2 velocity ctx.geometry([ BufferDescription(buffer, '2f 2f', ["in_vert", "in_velocity"]) ], mode=ctx.POINTS, ) # Geometry with index buffer ctx.geometry( [BufferDescription(buffer, '2f', ["in_vert"])], index_buffer=ibo, mode=ctx.TRIANGLES, ) # Separate buffers ctx.geometry([ BufferDescription(buffer_pos, '2f', ["in_vert"]) BufferDescription(buffer_vel, '2f', ["in_velocity"]) ], mode=ctx.POINTS, ) # Providing per-instance data for instancing ctx.geometry([ BufferDescription(buffer_pos, '2f', ["in_vert"]) BufferDescription(buffer_instance_pos, '2f', ["in_offset"], instanced=True) ], mode=ctx.POINTS, ) :param content: List of :py:class:`` (optional) :param index_buffer: Index/element buffer (optional) :param mode: The default draw mode (optional) :param mode: The default draw mode (optional) :param index_element_size: Byte size of a single index/element in the index buffer. In other words, the index buffer can be 8, 16 or 32 bit integers. Can be 1, 2 or 4 (8, 16 or 32 bit unsigned integer) """ return Geometry( self, content, index_buffer=index_buffer, mode=mode, index_element_size=index_element_size, )
[docs] def program( self, *, vertex_shader: str, fragment_shader: Optional[str] = None, geometry_shader: Optional[str] = None, tess_control_shader: Optional[str] = None, tess_evaluation_shader: Optional[str] = None, common: Optional[List[str]] = None, defines: Optional[Dict[str, str]] = None, varyings: Optional[Sequence[str]] = None, varyings_capture_mode: str = "interleaved", ) -> Program: """Create a :py:class:`` given the vertex, fragment and geometry shader. :param vertex_shader: vertex shader source :param fragment_shader: fragment shader source (optional) :param geometry_shader: geometry shader source (optional) :param tess_control_shader: tessellation control shader source (optional) :param tess_evaluation_shader: tessellation evaluation shader source (optional) :param common: Common shader sources injected into all shaders :param defines: Substitute #defines values in the source (optional) :param varyings: The name of the out attributes in a transform shader. This is normally not necessary since we auto detect them, but some more complex out structures we can't detect. :param varyings_capture_mode: The capture mode for transforms. ``"interleaved"`` means all out attribute will be written to a single buffer. ``"separate"`` means each out attribute will be written separate buffers. Based on these settings the `transform()` method will accept a single buffer or a list of buffer. """ source_vs = ShaderSource(self, vertex_shader, common, gl.GL_VERTEX_SHADER) source_fs = ( ShaderSource(self, fragment_shader, common, gl.GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER) if fragment_shader else None ) source_geo = ( ShaderSource(self, geometry_shader, common, gl.GL_GEOMETRY_SHADER) if geometry_shader else None ) source_tc = ( ShaderSource(self, tess_control_shader, common, gl.GL_TESS_CONTROL_SHADER) if tess_control_shader else None ) source_te = ( ShaderSource(self, tess_evaluation_shader, common, gl.GL_TESS_EVALUATION_SHADER) if tess_evaluation_shader else None ) # If we don't have a fragment shader we are doing transform feedback. # When a geometry shader is present the out attributes will be located there out_attributes = list(varyings) if varyings is not None else [] # type: List[str] if not source_fs and not out_attributes: if source_geo: out_attributes = source_geo.out_attributes else: out_attributes = source_vs.out_attributes return Program( self, vertex_shader=source_vs.get_source(defines=defines), fragment_shader=source_fs.get_source(defines=defines) if source_fs else None, geometry_shader=source_geo.get_source(defines=defines) if source_geo else None, tess_control_shader=source_tc.get_source(defines=defines) if source_tc else None, tess_evaluation_shader=source_te.get_source(defines=defines) if source_te else None, varyings=out_attributes, varyings_capture_mode=varyings_capture_mode, )
[docs] def query(self, *, samples=True, time=True, primitives=True) -> Query: """ Create a query object for measuring rendering calls in opengl. :param samples: Collect written samples :param time: Measure rendering duration :param primitives: Collect the number of primitives emitted """ return Query(self, samples=samples, time=time, primitives=primitives)
[docs] def compute_shader(self, *, source: str, common: Iterable[str] = ()) -> ComputeShader: """ Create a compute shader. :param source: The glsl source :param common: Common / library source injected into compute shader """ src = ShaderSource(self, source, common, gl.GL_COMPUTE_SHADER) return ComputeShader(self, src.get_source())
[docs] class ContextStats: """ Runtime allocation statistics of OpenGL objects. """ def __init__(self, warn_threshold=100): self.warn_threshold = warn_threshold #: Textures (created, freed) self.texture = (0, 0) #: Framebuffers (created, freed) self.framebuffer = (0, 0) #: Buffers (created, freed) self.buffer = (0, 0) #: Programs (created, freed) self.program = (0, 0) #: Vertex Arrays (created, freed) self.vertex_array = (0, 0) #: Geometry (created, freed) self.geometry = (0, 0) #: Compute Shaders (created, freed) self.compute_shader = (0, 0) #: Queries (created, freed) self.query = (0, 0)
[docs] def incr(self, key: str) -> None: """ Increments a counter. :param key: The attribute name / counter to increment. """ created, freed = getattr(self, key) setattr(self, key, (created + 1, freed)) if created % self.warn_threshold == 0 and created > 0: LOG.debug( "%s allocations passed threshold (%s) [created = %s] [freed = %s] [active = %s]", key, self.warn_threshold, created, freed, created - freed, )
[docs] def decr(self, key): """ Decrement a counter. :param key: The attribute name / counter to decrement. """ created, freed = getattr(self, key) setattr(self, key, (created, freed + 1))
[docs] class Limits: """OpenGL Limitations""" def __init__(self, ctx): self._ctx = ctx #: Minor version number of the OpenGL API supported by the current context self.MINOR_VERSION = self.get(gl.GL_MINOR_VERSION) #: Major version number of the OpenGL API supported by the current context. self.MAJOR_VERSION = self.get(gl.GL_MAJOR_VERSION) #: The vendor string. For example "NVIDIA Corporation" self.VENDOR = self.get_str(gl.GL_VENDOR) #: The renderer things. For example "NVIDIA GeForce RTX 2080 SUPER/PCIe/SSE2" self.RENDERER = self.get_str(gl.GL_RENDERER) #: Value indicating the number of sample buffers associated with the framebuffer self.SAMPLE_BUFFERS = self.get(gl.GL_SAMPLE_BUFFERS) #: An estimate of the number of bits of subpixel resolution #: that are used to position rasterized geometry in window coordinates self.SUBPIXEL_BITS = self.get(gl.GL_SUBPIXEL_BITS) #: Minimum required alignment for uniform buffer sizes and offset self.UNIFORM_BUFFER_OFFSET_ALIGNMENT = self.get( gl.GL_UNIFORM_BUFFER_OFFSET_ALIGNMENT ) #: Value indicates the maximum number of layers allowed in an array texture, and must be at least 256 self.MAX_ARRAY_TEXTURE_LAYERS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_ARRAY_TEXTURE_LAYERS) #: A rough estimate of the largest 3D texture that the GL can handle. The value must be at least 64 self.MAX_3D_TEXTURE_SIZE = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_3D_TEXTURE_SIZE) #: Maximum number of color attachments in a framebuffer self.MAX_COLOR_ATTACHMENTS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_COLOR_ATTACHMENTS) #: Maximum number of samples in a color multisample texture self.MAX_COLOR_TEXTURE_SAMPLES = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_COLOR_TEXTURE_SAMPLES) #: the number of words for fragment shader uniform variables in all uniform blocks self.MAX_COMBINED_FRAGMENT_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_COMBINED_FRAGMENT_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS ) #: Number of words for geometry shader uniform variables in all uniform blocks self.MAX_COMBINED_GEOMETRY_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_COMBINED_GEOMETRY_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS ) #: Maximum supported texture image units that can be used to access texture maps from the vertex shader self.MAX_COMBINED_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_COMBINED_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS ) #: Maximum number of uniform blocks per program self.MAX_COMBINED_UNIFORM_BLOCKS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_COMBINED_UNIFORM_BLOCKS) #: Number of words for vertex shader uniform variables in all uniform blocks self.MAX_COMBINED_VERTEX_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_COMBINED_VERTEX_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS ) #: A rough estimate of the largest cube-map texture that the GL can handle self.MAX_CUBE_MAP_TEXTURE_SIZE = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_CUBE_MAP_TEXTURE_SIZE) #: Maximum number of samples in a multisample depth or depth-stencil texture self.MAX_DEPTH_TEXTURE_SAMPLES = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_DEPTH_TEXTURE_SAMPLES) #: Maximum number of simultaneous outputs that may be written in a fragment shader self.MAX_DRAW_BUFFERS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_DRAW_BUFFERS) #: Recommended maximum number of vertex array indices self.MAX_ELEMENTS_INDICES = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_ELEMENTS_INDICES) #: Recommended maximum number of vertex array vertices self.MAX_ELEMENTS_VERTICES = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_ELEMENTS_VERTICES) #: Maximum number of components of the inputs read by the fragment shader self.MAX_FRAGMENT_INPUT_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_FRAGMENT_INPUT_COMPONENTS ) #: Maximum number of individual floating-point, integer, or boolean values that can be #: held in uniform variable storage for a fragment shader self.MAX_FRAGMENT_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_FRAGMENT_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS ) #: maximum number of individual 4-vectors of floating-point, integer, #: or boolean values that can be held in uniform variable storage for a fragment shader self.MAX_FRAGMENT_UNIFORM_VECTORS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_FRAGMENT_UNIFORM_VECTORS) #: Maximum number of uniform blocks per fragment shader. self.MAX_FRAGMENT_UNIFORM_BLOCKS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_FRAGMENT_UNIFORM_BLOCKS) #: Maximum number of components of inputs read by a geometry shader self.MAX_GEOMETRY_INPUT_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_GEOMETRY_INPUT_COMPONENTS ) #: Maximum number of components of outputs written by a geometry shader self.MAX_GEOMETRY_OUTPUT_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_GEOMETRY_OUTPUT_COMPONENTS ) #: Maximum supported texture image units that can be used to access texture maps from the geometry shader self.MAX_GEOMETRY_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_GEOMETRY_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS ) #: Maximum number of uniform blocks per geometry shader self.MAX_GEOMETRY_UNIFORM_BLOCKS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_GEOMETRY_UNIFORM_BLOCKS) #: Maximum number of individual floating-point, integer, or boolean values that can #: be held in uniform variable storage for a geometry shader self.MAX_GEOMETRY_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_GEOMETRY_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS ) #: Maximum number of samples supported in integer format multisample buffers self.MAX_INTEGER_SAMPLES = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_INTEGER_SAMPLES) #: Maximum samples for a framebuffer self.MAX_SAMPLES = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_SAMPLES) #: Maximum supported size for renderbuffers self.MAX_RENDERBUFFER_SIZE = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_RENDERBUFFER_SIZE) #: Maximum number of sample mask words self.MAX_SAMPLE_MASK_WORDS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_SAMPLE_MASK_WORDS) #: Maximum number of uniform buffer binding points on the context self.MAX_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BINDINGS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BINDINGS) #: Maximum number of uniform buffer binding points on the context self.MAX_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BINDINGS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BINDINGS) #: The value gives a rough estimate of the largest texture that the GL can handle self.MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_TEXTURE_SIZE) #: Maximum number of uniform buffer binding points on the context self.MAX_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BINDINGS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BINDINGS) #: Maximum size in basic machine units of a uniform block self.MAX_UNIFORM_BLOCK_SIZE = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_UNIFORM_BLOCK_SIZE) #: The number 4-vectors for varying variables self.MAX_VARYING_VECTORS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_VARYING_VECTORS) #: Maximum number of 4-component generic vertex attributes accessible to a vertex shader. self.MAX_VERTEX_ATTRIBS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_VERTEX_ATTRIBS) #: Maximum supported texture image units that can be used to access texture maps from the vertex shader. self.MAX_VERTEX_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_VERTEX_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS ) #: Maximum number of individual floating-point, integer, or boolean values that #: can be held in uniform variable storage for a vertex shader self.MAX_VERTEX_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS = self.get( gl.GL_MAX_VERTEX_UNIFORM_COMPONENTS ) #: Maximum number of 4-vectors that may be held in uniform variable storage for the vertex shader self.MAX_VERTEX_UNIFORM_VECTORS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_VERTEX_UNIFORM_VECTORS) #: Maximum number of components of output written by a vertex shader self.MAX_VERTEX_OUTPUT_COMPONENTS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_VERTEX_OUTPUT_COMPONENTS) #: Maximum number of uniform blocks per vertex shader. self.MAX_VERTEX_UNIFORM_BLOCKS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_VERTEX_UNIFORM_BLOCKS) # self.MAX_VERTEX_ATTRIB_RELATIVE_OFFSET = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_VERTEX_ATTRIB_RELATIVE_OFFSET) # self.MAX_VERTEX_ATTRIB_BINDINGS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_VERTEX_ATTRIB_BINDINGS) self.MAX_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_TEXTURE_IMAGE_UNITS) #: The highest supported anisotropy value. Usually 8.0 or 16.0. self.MAX_TEXTURE_MAX_ANISOTROPY = self.get_float(gl.GL_MAX_TEXTURE_MAX_ANISOTROPY, 1.0) #: The maximum support window or framebuffer viewport. #: This is usually the same as the maximum texture size self.MAX_VIEWPORT_DIMS: Tuple[int, int] = self.get_int_tuple(gl.GL_MAX_VIEWPORT_DIMS, 2) #: How many buffers we can have as output when doing a transform(feedback). #: This is usually 4 self.MAX_TRANSFORM_FEEDBACK_SEPARATE_ATTRIBS = self.get(gl.GL_MAX_TRANSFORM_FEEDBACK_SEPARATE_ATTRIBS) #: The minimum and maximum point size self.POINT_SIZE_RANGE = self.get_int_tuple(gl.GL_POINT_SIZE_RANGE, 2) err = self._ctx.error if err: from warnings import warn warn("Error happened while querying of limits. Moving on ..") @overload def get_int_tuple(self, enum: GLenumLike, length: Literal[2]) -> Tuple[int, int]:... @overload def get_int_tuple(self, enum: GLenumLike, length: int) -> Tuple[int, ...]:...
[docs] def get_int_tuple(self, enum: GLenumLike, length: int): """Get an enum as an int tuple""" try: values = (c_int * length)() gl.glGetIntegerv(enum, values) return tuple(values) except return tuple([0] * length)
[docs] def get(self, enum: GLenumLike, default=0) -> int: """Get an integer limit""" try: value = c_int() gl.glGetIntegerv(enum, value) return value.value except return default
[docs] def get_float(self, enum: GLenumLike, default=0.0) -> float: """Get a float limit""" try: value = c_float() gl.glGetFloatv(enum, value) return value.value except return default
[docs] def get_str(self, enum: GLenumLike) -> str: """Get a string limit""" try: return cast(gl.glGetString(enum), c_char_p).value.decode() # type: ignore except return "Unknown"