Source code for arcade.sprite_list.sprite_list

"""
This module provides functionality to manage Sprites in a list
and efficiently batch drawing them. Drawing sprites using
SpriteList is orders of magnitude faster then drawing
individual sprites.
"""

from __future__ import annotations

import logging
import random
from array import array
from collections import deque
from typing import (
    TYPE_CHECKING,
    Any,
    Deque,
    Dict,
    Iterable,
    Iterator,
    List,
    Optional,
    Tuple,
    Union,
    Generic,
    Callable,
    cast, Sized,
)

from arcade import (
    Sprite,
    SpriteType,
    get_window,
    gl,
)
from arcade.gl import Texture2D, Program
from arcade.types import Color, RGBA255, RGBOrANormalized, RGBANormalized
from arcade.gl.types import OpenGlFilter, BlendFunction, PyGLenum
from arcade.gl.buffer import Buffer
from arcade.gl.vertex_array import Geometry
from arcade.utils import copy_dunders_unimplemented

if TYPE_CHECKING:
    from arcade import Texture, TextureAtlas

LOG = logging.getLogger(__name__)

# The slot index that makes a sprite invisible.
# 2^31-1 is usually reserved for primitive restart
# NOTE: Possibly we want to use slot 0 for this?
_SPRITE_SLOT_INVISIBLE = 2000000000

# The default capacity from spritelists
_DEFAULT_CAPACITY = 100


[docs] @copy_dunders_unimplemented # Temp fixes https://github.com/pythonarcade/arcade/issues/2074 class SpriteList(Generic[SpriteType]): """ The purpose of the spriteList is to batch draw a list of sprites. Drawing single sprites will not get you anywhere performance wise as the number of sprites in your project increases. The spritelist contains many low level optimizations taking advantage of your graphics processor. To put things into perspective, a spritelist can contain tens of thousands of sprites without any issues. Sprites outside the viewport/window will not be rendered. If the spritelist are going to be used for collision it's a good idea to enable spatial hashing. Especially if no sprites are moving. This will make collision checking **a lot** faster. In technical terms collision checking is ``O(1)`` with spatial hashing enabled and ``O(N)`` without. However, if you have a list of moving sprites the cost of updating the spatial hash when they are moved can be greater than what you save with spatial collision checks. This needs to be profiled on a case by case basis. For the advanced options check the advanced section in the arcade documentation. :param use_spatial_hash: If set to True, this will make creating a sprite, and moving a sprite in the SpriteList slower, but it will speed up collision detection with items in the SpriteList. Great for doing collision detection with static walls/platforms in large maps. :param spatial_hash_cell_size: The cell size of the spatial hash (default: 128) :param atlas: (Advanced) The texture atlas for this sprite list. If no atlas is supplied the global/default one will be used. :param capacity: (Advanced) The initial capacity of the internal buffer. It's a suggestion for the maximum amount of sprites this list can hold. Can normally be left with default value. :param lazy: (Advanced) ``True`` delays creating OpenGL resources for the sprite list until either its :py:meth:`~SpriteList.draw` or :py:meth:`~SpriteList.initialize` method is called. See :ref:`pg_spritelist_advanced_lazy_spritelists` to learn more. :param visible: Setting this to False will cause the SpriteList to not be drawn. When draw is called, the method will just return without drawing. """ def __init__( self, use_spatial_hash: bool = False, spatial_hash_cell_size: int = 128, atlas: Optional["TextureAtlas"] = None, capacity: int = 100, lazy: bool = False, visible: bool = True, ): self.program: Optional[Program] = None self._atlas: Optional[TextureAtlas] = atlas self._initialized = False self._lazy = lazy self._visible = visible self._color: Tuple[float, float, float, float] = (1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 1.0) # The initial capacity of the spritelist buffers (internal) self._buf_capacity = abs(capacity) or _DEFAULT_CAPACITY # The initial capacity of the index buffer (internal) self._idx_capacity = abs(capacity) or _DEFAULT_CAPACITY # The number of slots used in the sprite buffer self._sprite_buffer_slots = 0 # Number of slots used in the index buffer self._sprite_index_slots = 0 # List of free slots in the sprite buffers. These are filled when sprites are removed. self._sprite_buffer_free_slots: Deque[int] = deque() # List of sprites in the sprite list self.sprite_list: List[SpriteType] = [] # Buffer slots for the sprites (excluding index buffer) # This has nothing to do with the index in the spritelist itself self.sprite_slot: Dict[SpriteType, int] = dict() # Python representation of buffer data self._sprite_pos_data = array("f", [0] * self._buf_capacity * 3) self._sprite_size_data = array("f", [0] * self._buf_capacity * 2) self._sprite_angle_data = array("f", [0] * self._buf_capacity) self._sprite_color_data = array("B", [0] * self._buf_capacity * 4) self._sprite_texture_data = array("f", [0] * self._buf_capacity) # Index buffer self._sprite_index_data = array("i", [0] * self._idx_capacity) # Define and annotate storage space for buffers self._sprite_pos_buf: Optional[Buffer] = None self._sprite_size_buf: Optional[Buffer] = None self._sprite_angle_buf: Optional[Buffer] = None self._sprite_color_buf: Optional[Buffer] = None self._sprite_texture_buf: Optional[Buffer] = None # Index buffer self._sprite_index_buf: Optional[Buffer] = None self._geometry: Optional[Geometry] = None # Flags for signaling if a buffer needs to be written to the opengl buffer self._sprite_pos_changed: bool = False self._sprite_size_changed: bool = False self._sprite_angle_changed: bool = False self._sprite_color_changed: bool = False self._sprite_texture_changed: bool = False self._sprite_index_changed: bool = False # Used in collision detection optimization from .spatial_hash import SpatialHash self._spatial_hash_cell_size = spatial_hash_cell_size self.spatial_hash: Optional[SpatialHash[SpriteType]] = None if use_spatial_hash: self.spatial_hash = SpatialHash(cell_size=self._spatial_hash_cell_size) self.properties: Optional[Dict[str, Any]] = None LOG.debug( "[%s] Creating SpriteList use_spatial_hash=%s capacity=%s", id(self), use_spatial_hash, self._buf_capacity, ) # Check if the window/context is available try: get_window() if not self._lazy: self._init_deferred() except RuntimeError: pass def _init_deferred(self) -> None: """ Since spritelist can be created before the window we need to defer initialization. It also makes us able to support lazy loading. """ if self._initialized: return self.ctx = get_window().ctx self.program = self.ctx.sprite_list_program_cull if not self._atlas: self._atlas = self.ctx.default_atlas # Buffers for each sprite attribute (read by shader) with initial capacity self._sprite_pos_buf = self.ctx.buffer(reserve=self._buf_capacity * 12) # 3 x 32 bit floats self._sprite_size_buf = self.ctx.buffer(reserve=self._buf_capacity * 8) # 2 x 32 bit floats self._sprite_angle_buf = self.ctx.buffer(reserve=self._buf_capacity * 4) # 32 bit float self._sprite_color_buf = self.ctx.buffer(reserve=self._buf_capacity * 4) # 4 x bytes colors self._sprite_texture_buf = self.ctx.buffer(reserve=self._buf_capacity * 4) # 32 bit int # Index buffer self._sprite_index_buf = self.ctx.buffer(reserve=self._idx_capacity * 4) # 32 bit unsigned integers contents = [ gl.BufferDescription(self._sprite_pos_buf, "3f", ["in_pos"]), gl.BufferDescription(self._sprite_size_buf, "2f", ["in_size"]), gl.BufferDescription(self._sprite_angle_buf, "1f", ["in_angle"]), gl.BufferDescription(self._sprite_texture_buf, "1f", ["in_texture"]), gl.BufferDescription( self._sprite_color_buf, "4f1", ["in_color"], ), ] self._geometry = self.ctx.geometry( contents, index_buffer=self._sprite_index_buf, index_element_size=4, # 32 bit integers ) self._initialized = True # Load all the textures and write texture coordinates into buffers. for sprite in self.sprite_list: # noinspection PyProtectedMember if sprite._texture is None: raise ValueError("Attempting to use a sprite without a texture") self._update_texture(sprite) if hasattr(sprite, "textures"): if TYPE_CHECKING: assert isinstance(sprite, Sprite) for texture in sprite.textures or []: self._atlas.add(texture) self._sprite_pos_changed = True self._sprite_size_changed = True self._sprite_angle_changed = True self._sprite_color_changed = True self._sprite_texture_changed = True self._sprite_index_changed = True
[docs] def __len__(self) -> int: """Return the length of the sprite list.""" return len(self.sprite_list)
[docs] def __contains__(self, sprite: Sprite) -> bool: """Return if the sprite list contains the given sprite""" return sprite in self.sprite_slot
[docs] def __iter__(self) -> Iterator[SpriteType]: """Return an iterable object of sprites.""" return iter(self.sprite_list)
def __getitem__(self, i: int) -> SpriteType: return self.sprite_list[i]
[docs] def __setitem__(self, index: int, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """Replace a sprite at a specific index""" # print(f"{id(self)} : {id(sprite)} __setitem__({index})") try: existing_index = self.sprite_list.index(sprite) # raise ValueError if existing_index == index: return raise Exception(f"Sprite is already in the list (index {existing_index})") except ValueError: pass sprite_to_be_removed = self.sprite_list[index] sprite_to_be_removed.sprite_lists.remove(self) self.sprite_list[index] = sprite # Replace sprite sprite.register_sprite_list(self) if self.spatial_hash is not None: self.spatial_hash.remove(sprite_to_be_removed) self.spatial_hash.add(sprite) # Steal the slot from the old sprite slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite_to_be_removed] del self.sprite_slot[sprite_to_be_removed] self.sprite_slot[sprite] = slot # Update the internal sprite buffer data self._update_all(sprite)
@property def visible(self) -> bool: """ Get or set the visible flag for this spritelist. If visible is ``False`` the ``draw()`` has no effect. """ return self._visible @visible.setter def visible(self, value: bool) -> None: self._visible = value @property def color(self) -> Color: """ Get or set the multiply color for all sprites in the list RGBA integers This will affect all sprites in the list, and each value must be between 0 and 255. The color may be specified as any of the following: * an RGBA :py:class:`tuple` with each channel value between 0 and 255 * an instance of :py:class:`~arcade.types.Color` * an RGB :py:class:`tuple`, in which case the color will be treated as opaque Each individual sprite can also be assigned a color via its :py:attr:`~arcade.BasicSprite.color` property. When :py:meth:`.SpriteList.draw` is called, each pixel will default to a value equivalent to the following: 1. Convert the sampled texture, sprite, and list colors into normalized floats (0.0 to 1.0) 2. Multiply the color channels together: ``texture_color * sprite_color * spritelist_color`` 3. Multiply the floating point values by 255 and round the result """ return Color.from_normalized(self._color) @color.setter def color(self, color: RGBA255) -> None: self._color = Color.from_iterable(color).normalized @property def color_normalized(self) -> RGBANormalized: """ Get or set the spritelist color in normalized form (0.0 -> 1.0 floats). This property works the same as :py:attr:`~arcade.SpriteList.color`. """ return self._color @color_normalized.setter def color_normalized(self, value: RGBOrANormalized) -> None: try: r, g, b, *_a = value assert len(_a) <= 1 except (ValueError, AssertionError) as e: raise ValueError( "color_normalized must unpack as 3 or 4 float values" ) from e self._color = r, g, b, _a[0] if _a else 1.0 @property def alpha(self) -> int: """ Get or set the alpha/transparency of the entire spritelist. This is a byte value from 0 to 255 were 0 is completely transparent/invisible and 255 is opaque. """ return int(self._color[3] * 255) @alpha.setter def alpha(self, value: int) -> None: # value = clamp(value, 0, 255) self._color = self._color[0], self._color[1], self._color[2], value / 255 @property def alpha_normalized(self) -> float: """ Get or set the alpha/transparency of all the sprites in the list. This is a floating point number from 0.0 to 1.0 were 0.0 is completely transparent/invisible and 1.0 is opaque. This is a shortcut for setting the alpha value in the spritelist color. """ return self._color[3] @alpha_normalized.setter def alpha_normalized(self, value: float) -> None: # value = clamp(value, 0.0, 1.0) self._color = self._color[0], self._color[1], self._color[2], value @property def atlas(self) -> Optional["TextureAtlas"]: """Get the texture atlas for this sprite list""" return self._atlas @property def geometry(self) -> Geometry: """ Returns the internal OpenGL geometry for this spritelist. This can be used to execute custom shaders with the spritelist data. One or multiple of the following inputs must be defined in your vertex shader:: in vec2 in_pos; in float in_angle; in vec2 in_size; in float in_texture; in vec4 in_color; """ if not self._geometry: raise ValueError("SpriteList is not initialized.") return self._geometry @property def buffer_positions(self) -> Buffer: """ Get the internal OpenGL position buffer for this spritelist. The buffer contains 32 bit float values with x, y and z positions. These are the center positions for each sprite. This buffer is attached to the :py:attr:`~arcade.SpriteList.geometry` instance with name ``in_pos``. """ if self._sprite_pos_buf is None: raise ValueError("SpriteList is not initialized") return self._sprite_pos_buf @property def buffer_sizes(self) -> Buffer: """ Get the internal OpenGL size buffer for this spritelist. The buffer contains 32 bit float width and height values. This buffer is attached to the :py:attr:`~arcade.SpriteList.geometry` instance with name ``in_size``. """ if self._sprite_size_buf is None: raise ValueError("SpriteList is not initialized") return self._sprite_size_buf @property def buffer_angles(self) -> Buffer: """ Get the internal OpenGL angle buffer for the spritelist. This buffer contains a series of 32 bit floats representing the rotation angle for each sprite in degrees. This buffer is attached to the :py:attr:`~arcade.SpriteList.geometry` instance with name ``in_angle``. """ if self._sprite_angle_buf is None: raise ValueError("SpriteList is not initialized") return self._sprite_angle_buf @property def buffer_colors(self) -> Buffer: """ Get the internal OpenGL color buffer for this spritelist. This buffer contains a series of 32 bit floats representing the RGBA color for each sprite. 4 x floats = RGBA. This buffer is attached to the :py:attr:`~arcade.SpriteList.geometry` instance with name ``in_color``. """ if self._sprite_color_buf is None: raise ValueError("SpriteList is not initialized") return self._sprite_color_buf @property def buffer_textures(self) -> Buffer: """ Get the internal openGL texture id buffer for the spritelist. This buffer contains a series of single 32 bit floats referencing a texture ID. This ID references a texture in the texture atlas assigned to this spritelist. The ID is used to look up texture coordinates in a 32bit floating point texture the texter atlas provides. This system makes sure we can resize and rebuild a texture atlas without having to rebuild every single spritelist. This buffer is attached to the :py:attr:`~arcade.SpriteList.geometry` instance with name ``in_texture``. Note that it should ideally an unsigned integer, but due to compatibility we store them as 32 bit floats. We cast them to integers in the shader. """ if self._sprite_texture_buf is None: raise ValueError("SpriteList is not initialized") return self._sprite_texture_buf @property def buffer_indices(self) -> Buffer: """ Get the internal index buffer for this spritelist. The data in the other buffers are not in the correct order matching ``spritelist[i]``. The index buffer has to be used used to resolve the right order. It simply contains a series of integers referencing locations in the other buffers. Also note that the length of this buffer might be bigger than the number of sprites. Rely on ``len(spritelist)`` for the correct length. This index buffer is attached to the :py:attr:`~arcade.SpriteList.geometry` instance and will be automatically be applied the the input buffers when rendering or transforming. """ if self._sprite_index_buf is None: raise ValueError("SpriteList is not initialized") return self._sprite_index_buf def _next_slot(self) -> int: """ Get the next available slot in sprite buffers :return: index slot, buffer_slot """ # Reuse old slots from deleted sprites if self._sprite_buffer_free_slots: return self._sprite_buffer_free_slots.popleft() # Add a new slot buff_slot = self._sprite_buffer_slots self._sprite_buffer_slots += 1 self._grow_sprite_buffers() # We might need to increase our buffers return buff_slot
[docs] def index(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> int: """ Return the index of a sprite in the spritelist :param sprite: Sprite to find and return the index of """ return self.sprite_list.index(sprite)
[docs] def clear(self, deep: bool = True) -> None: """ Remove all the sprites resetting the spritelist to it's initial state. The complexity of this method is ``O(N)`` with a deep clear (default). If ALL the sprites in the list gets garbage collected with the list itself you can do an ``O(1)``` clear using ``deep=False``. **Make sure you know exactly what you are doing before using this option.** Any lingering sprite reference will cause a massive memory leak. The ``deep`` option will iterate all the sprites and remove their references to this spritelist. Sprite and SpriteList have a circular reference for performance reasons. """ from .spatial_hash import SpatialHash # Manually remove the spritelist from all sprites if deep: for sprite in self.sprite_list: sprite.sprite_lists.remove(self) self.sprite_list = [] self.sprite_slot = dict() # Reset SpatialHash if self.spatial_hash is not None: self.spatial_hash = SpatialHash(cell_size=self._spatial_hash_cell_size) # Clear the slot_idx and slot info and other states self._buf_capacity = _DEFAULT_CAPACITY self._idx_capacity = _DEFAULT_CAPACITY self._sprite_buffer_slots = 0 self._sprite_index_slots = 0 self._sprite_buffer_free_slots = deque() # Reset buffers # Python representation of buffer data self._sprite_pos_data = array("f", [0] * self._buf_capacity * 3) self._sprite_size_data = array("f", [0] * self._buf_capacity * 2) self._sprite_angle_data = array("f", [0] * self._buf_capacity) self._sprite_color_data = array("B", [0] * self._buf_capacity * 4) self._sprite_texture_data = array("f", [0] * self._buf_capacity) # Index buffer self._sprite_index_data = array("I", [0] * self._idx_capacity) if self._initialized: self._initialized = False self._init_deferred()
[docs] def pop(self, index: int = -1) -> SpriteType: """ Pop off the last sprite, or the given index, from the list :param index: Index of sprite to remove, defaults to -1 for the last item. """ if len(self.sprite_list) == 0: raise (ValueError("pop from empty list")) sprite = self.sprite_list[index] self.remove(sprite) return sprite
[docs] def append(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Add a new sprite to the list. :param sprite: Sprite to add to the list. """ # print(f"{id(self)} : {id(sprite)} append") if sprite in self.sprite_slot: raise ValueError("Sprite already in SpriteList") slot = self._next_slot() self.sprite_slot[sprite] = slot self.sprite_list.append(sprite) sprite.register_sprite_list(self) self._update_all(sprite) # Add sprite to the end of the index buffer idx_slot = self._sprite_index_slots self._sprite_index_slots += 1 self._grow_index_buffer() self._sprite_index_data[idx_slot] = slot self._sprite_index_changed = True if self.spatial_hash is not None: self.spatial_hash.add(sprite) # Load additional textures attached to the sprite # if hasattr(sprite, "textures") and self._initialized: # for texture in sprite.textures or []: # self._atlas.add(texture) if self._initialized: if sprite.texture is None: raise ValueError("Sprite must have a texture when added to a SpriteList") self._atlas.add(sprite.texture) # type: ignore
[docs] def swap(self, index_1: int, index_2: int) -> None: """ Swap two sprites by index :param index_1: Item index to swap :param index_2: Item index to swap """ # Swap order in spritelist sprite_1 = self.sprite_list[index_1] sprite_2 = self.sprite_list[index_2] self.sprite_list[index_1] = sprite_2 self.sprite_list[index_2] = sprite_1 # Swap order in index buffer slot_1 = self.sprite_slot[sprite_1] slot_2 = self.sprite_slot[sprite_2] i1 = self._sprite_index_data.index(slot_1) i2 = self._sprite_index_data.index(slot_2) self._sprite_index_data[i1] = slot_2 self._sprite_index_data[i2] = slot_1
[docs] def remove(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Remove a specific sprite from the list. :param sprite: Item to remove from the list """ # print(f"{id(self)} : {id(sprite)} remove") try: slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] except KeyError: raise ValueError("Sprite is not in the SpriteList") self.sprite_list.remove(sprite) sprite.sprite_lists.remove(self) del self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_buffer_free_slots.append(slot) # NOTE: Optimize this by deferring removal? # Defer removal # Set the sprite as invisible in the index buffer # idx_slot = self._sprite_index_data.index(slot) # self._sprite_index_data[idx_slot] = _SPRITE_SLOT_INVISIBLE # Brutal resize for now. Optimize later self._sprite_index_data.remove(slot) self._sprite_index_data.append(0) self._sprite_index_slots -= 1 self._sprite_index_changed = True if self.spatial_hash is not None: self.spatial_hash.remove(sprite)
[docs] def extend(self, sprites: Union[Iterable[SpriteType], SpriteList[SpriteType]]) -> None: """ Extends the current list with the given iterable :param sprites: Iterable of Sprites to add to the list """ for sprite in sprites: self.append(sprite)
[docs] def insert(self, index: int, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Inserts a sprite at a given index. :param index: The index at which to insert :param sprite: The sprite to insert """ if sprite in self.sprite_list: raise ValueError("Sprite is already in list") index = max(min(len(self.sprite_list), index), 0) self.sprite_list.insert(index, sprite) sprite.register_sprite_list(self) # Allocate a new slot and write the data slot = self._next_slot() self.sprite_slot[sprite] = slot self._update_all(sprite) # Allocate room in the index buffer self._normalize_index_buffer() # idx_slot = self._sprite_index_slots self._sprite_index_slots += 1 self._grow_index_buffer() self._sprite_index_data.insert(index, slot) self._sprite_index_data.pop() if self.spatial_hash is not None: self.spatial_hash.add(sprite)
[docs] def reverse(self) -> None: """ Reverses the current list in-place """ # Ensure the index buffer is normalized self._normalize_index_buffer() # Reverse the sprites and index buffer self.sprite_list.reverse() # This seems to be the reasonable way to reverse a subset of an array reverse_data = self._sprite_index_data[0:len(self.sprite_list)] reverse_data.reverse() self._sprite_index_data[0:len(self.sprite_list)] = reverse_data self._sprite_index_changed = True
[docs] def shuffle(self) -> None: """ Shuffles the current list in-place """ # The only thing we need to do when shuffling is # to shuffle the sprite_list and index buffer in # in the same operation. We don't change the sprite buffers # Make sure the index buffer is the same length as the sprite list self._normalize_index_buffer() # zip index and sprite into pairs and shuffle pairs = list(zip(self.sprite_list, self._sprite_index_data)) random.shuffle(pairs) # Reconstruct the lists again from pairs sprites, indices = cast(Tuple[List[SpriteType], List[int]], zip(*pairs)) self.sprite_list = list(sprites) self._sprite_index_data = array("I", indices) # Resize the index buffer to the original capacity if len(self._sprite_index_data) < self._idx_capacity: extend_by = self._idx_capacity - len(self._sprite_index_data) self._sprite_index_data.extend([0] * extend_by) self._sprite_index_changed = True
[docs] def sort(self, *, key: Callable, reverse: bool = False) -> None: """ Sort the spritelist in place using ``<`` comparison between sprites. This function is similar to python's :py:meth:`list.sort`. Example sorting sprites based on y-axis position using a lambda:: # Normal order spritelist.sort(key=lambda x: x.position[1]) # Reversed order spritelist.sort(key=lambda x: x.position[1], reverse=True) Example sorting sprites using a function:: # More complex sorting logic can be applied, but let's just stick to y position def create_y_pos_comparison(sprite): return sprite.position[1] spritelist.sort(key=create_y_pos_comparison) :param key: A function taking a sprite as an argument returning a comparison key :param reverse: If set to ``True`` the sprites will be sorted in reverse """ # Ensure the index buffer is normalized self._normalize_index_buffer() # In-place sort the spritelist self.sprite_list.sort(key=key, reverse=reverse) # Loop over the sorted sprites and assign new values in index buffer for i, sprite in enumerate(self.sprite_list): self._sprite_index_data[i] = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_index_changed = True
[docs] def disable_spatial_hashing(self) -> None: """ Deletes the internal spatial hash object """ self.spatial_hash = None
[docs] def enable_spatial_hashing(self, spatial_hash_cell_size: int = 128) -> None: """Turn on spatial hashing.""" if self.spatial_hash is None or self.spatial_hash.cell_size != spatial_hash_cell_size: LOG.debug("Enabled spatial hashing with cell size %s", spatial_hash_cell_size) from .spatial_hash import SpatialHash self.spatial_hash = SpatialHash(cell_size=spatial_hash_cell_size) self._recalculate_spatial_hashes() else: LOG.debug("Spatial hashing is already enabled with size %s", spatial_hash_cell_size)
def _recalculate_spatial_hashes(self) -> None: if self.spatial_hash is None: from .spatial_hash import SpatialHash self.spatial_hash = SpatialHash(cell_size=self._spatial_hash_cell_size) self.spatial_hash.reset() for sprite in self.sprite_list: self.spatial_hash.add(sprite)
[docs] def update(self) -> None: """ Call the update() method on each sprite in the list. """ for sprite in self.sprite_list: sprite.update()
[docs] def on_update(self, delta_time: float = 1 / 60) -> None: """ Update the sprite. Similar to update, but also takes a delta-time. """ for sprite in self.sprite_list: sprite.on_update(delta_time)
[docs] def update_animation(self, delta_time: float = 1 / 60) -> None: """ Call the update_animation in every sprite in the sprite list. """ # NOTE: Can we limit this to animated sprites? for sprite in self.sprite_list: sprite.update_animation(delta_time)
def _get_center(self) -> Tuple[float, float]: """Get the mean center coordinates of all sprites in the list.""" x = sum((sprite.center_x for sprite in self.sprite_list)) / len( self.sprite_list ) y = sum((sprite.center_y for sprite in self.sprite_list)) / len( self.sprite_list ) return x, y center = property(_get_center)
[docs] def rescale(self, factor: float) -> None: """Rescale all sprites in the list relative to the spritelists center.""" for sprite in self.sprite_list: sprite.rescale_relative_to_point(self.center, factor)
[docs] def move(self, change_x: float, change_y: float) -> None: """ Moves all Sprites in the list by the same amount. This can be a very expensive operation depending on the size of the sprite list. :param change_x: Amount to change all x values by :param change_y: Amount to change all y values by """ for sprite in self.sprite_list: sprite.center_x += change_x sprite.center_y += change_y
[docs] def preload_textures(self, texture_list: Iterable["Texture"]) -> None: """ Preload a set of textures that will be used for sprites in this sprite list. :param texture_list: List of textures. """ if not self.ctx: raise ValueError("Cannot preload textures before the window is created") for texture in texture_list: # Ugly spacing is a fast workaround for None type checking issues self._atlas.add( # type: ignore texture)
[docs] def write_sprite_buffers_to_gpu(self) -> None: """ Ensure buffers are resized and fresh sprite data is written into the internal sprite buffers. This is automatically called in :py:meth:`SpriteList.draw`, but there are instances when using custom shaders we need to force this to happen since we might have not called :py:meth:`SpriteList.draw` since the spritelist was modified. If you have added, removed, moved or changed ANY sprite property this method will synchronize the data on the gpu side (buffer resizing and writing in new data). """ self._write_sprite_buffers_to_gpu()
def _write_sprite_buffers_to_gpu(self) -> None: LOG.debug( "[%s] SpriteList._write_sprite_buffers_to_gpu: pos=%s, size=%s, angle=%s, color=%s tex=%s idx=%s", id(self), self._sprite_pos_changed, self._sprite_size_changed, self._sprite_angle_changed, self._sprite_color_changed, self._sprite_texture_changed, self._sprite_index_changed, ) if self._sprite_pos_changed and self._sprite_pos_buf: self._sprite_pos_buf.orphan() self._sprite_pos_buf.write(self._sprite_pos_data) self._sprite_pos_changed = False if self._sprite_size_changed and self._sprite_size_buf: self._sprite_size_buf.orphan() self._sprite_size_buf.write(self._sprite_size_data) self._sprite_size_changed = False if self._sprite_angle_changed and self._sprite_angle_buf: self._sprite_angle_buf.orphan() self._sprite_angle_buf.write(self._sprite_angle_data) self._sprite_angle_changed = False if self._sprite_color_changed and self._sprite_color_buf: self._sprite_color_buf.orphan() self._sprite_color_buf.write(self._sprite_color_data) self._sprite_color_changed = False if self._sprite_texture_changed and self._sprite_texture_buf: self._sprite_texture_buf.orphan() self._sprite_texture_buf.write(self._sprite_texture_data) self._sprite_texture_changed = False if self._sprite_index_changed and self._sprite_index_buf: self._sprite_index_buf.orphan() self._sprite_index_buf.write(self._sprite_index_data) self._sprite_index_changed = False
[docs] def initialize(self) -> None: """ Request immediate creation of OpenGL resources for this list. Calling this method is optional. It only has an effect for lists created with ``lazy=True``. If this method is not called, uninitialized sprite lists will automatically initialize OpenGL resources on their first :py:meth:`~SpriteList.draw` call instead. This method is useful for performance optimization, advanced techniques, and writing tests. Do not call it across thread boundaries. See :ref:`pg_spritelist_advanced_lazy_spritelists` to learn more. """ self._init_deferred()
[docs] def draw( self, *, filter: Optional[Union[PyGLenum, OpenGlFilter]] = None, pixelated: Optional[bool] = None, blend_function: Optional[BlendFunction] = None ) -> None: """ Draw this list of sprites. Uninitialized sprite lists will first create OpenGL resources before drawing. This may cause a performance stutter when the following are true: 1. You created the sprite list with ``lazy=True`` 2. You did not call :py:meth:`~SpriteList.initialize` before drawing 3. You are initializing many sprites and/or lists at once See :ref:`pg_spritelist_advanced_lazy_spritelists` to learn more. :param filter: Optional parameter to set OpenGL filter, such as `gl.GL_NEAREST` to avoid smoothing. :param pixelated: ``True`` for pixelated and ``False`` for smooth interpolation. Shortcut for setting filter=GL_NEAREST. :param blend_function: Optional parameter to set the OpenGL blend function used for drawing the sprite list, such as 'arcade.Window.ctx.BLEND_ADDITIVE' or 'arcade.Window.ctx.BLEND_DEFAULT' """ if len(self.sprite_list) == 0 or not self._visible or self.alpha_normalized == 0.0: return self._init_deferred() self._write_sprite_buffers_to_gpu() self.ctx.enable(self.ctx.BLEND) # Set custom blend function or revert to default if blend_function is not None: self.ctx.blend_func = blend_function else: self.ctx.blend_func = self.ctx.BLEND_DEFAULT # Workarounds for Optional[TextureAtlas] + slow . lookup speed atlas: TextureAtlas = self.atlas # type: ignore atlas_texture: Texture2D = atlas.texture # Set custom filter or reset to default if filter: if hasattr(filter, '__len__', ): # assume it's a collection if len(cast(Sized, filter)) != 2: raise ValueError("Can't use sequence of length != 2") atlas_texture.filter = tuple(filter) # type: ignore else: # assume it's an int atlas_texture.filter = cast(OpenGlFilter, (filter, filter)) else: atlas_texture.filter = self.ctx.LINEAR, self.ctx.LINEAR # Handle the pixelated shortcut if pixelated: atlas_texture.filter = self.ctx.NEAREST, self.ctx.NEAREST else: atlas_texture.filter = self.ctx.LINEAR, self.ctx.LINEAR if not self.program: raise ValueError("Attempting to render without 'program' field being set.") self.program["spritelist_color"] = self._color atlas_texture.use(0) atlas.use_uv_texture(1) if not self._geometry: raise ValueError("Attempting to render without '_geometry' field being set.") self._geometry.render( self.program, mode=self.ctx.POINTS, vertices=self._sprite_index_slots, )
[docs] def draw_hit_boxes( self, color: RGBA255 = (0, 0, 0, 255), line_thickness: float = 1.0 ) -> None: """Draw all the hit boxes in this list""" # NOTE: Find a way to efficiently draw this for sprite in self.sprite_list: sprite.draw_hit_box(color, line_thickness)
def _normalize_index_buffer(self) -> None: """ Removes unused slots in the index buffer. The other buffers don't need this because they re-use slots. New sprites on the other hand always needs to be added to the end of the index buffer to preserve order """ # NOTE: Currently we keep the index buffer normalized # but we can increase the performance in the future # delaying normalization. # Need counter for how many slots are used in index buffer. # 1) Sort the deleted indices (descending) and pop() them in a loop # 2) Create a new array.array and manually copy every # item in the list except the deleted index slots # 3) Use a transform (gpu) to trim the index buffer and # read this buffer back into a new array using array.from_bytes # NOTE: Right now the index buffer is always normalized pass def _grow_sprite_buffers(self) -> None: """Double the internal buffer sizes""" # Resize sprite buffers if needed if self._sprite_buffer_slots <= self._buf_capacity: return # Double the capacity extend_by = self._buf_capacity self._buf_capacity = self._buf_capacity * 2 LOG.debug( "(%s) Increasing buffer capacity from %s to %s", self._sprite_buffer_slots, extend_by, self._buf_capacity, ) # Extend the buffers so we don't lose the old data self._sprite_pos_data.extend([0] * extend_by * 3) self._sprite_size_data.extend([0] * extend_by * 2) self._sprite_angle_data.extend([0] * extend_by) self._sprite_color_data.extend([0] * extend_by * 4) self._sprite_texture_data.extend([0] * extend_by) if self._initialized: # Proper initialization implies these buffers are allocated self._sprite_pos_buf.orphan(double=True) # type: ignore self._sprite_size_buf.orphan(double=True) # type: ignore self._sprite_angle_buf.orphan(double=True) # type: ignore self._sprite_color_buf.orphan(double=True) # type: ignore self._sprite_texture_buf.orphan(double=True) # type: ignore self._sprite_pos_changed = True self._sprite_size_changed = True self._sprite_angle_changed = True self._sprite_color_changed = True self._sprite_texture_changed = True def _grow_index_buffer(self) -> None: # Extend the index buffer capacity if needed if self._sprite_index_slots <= self._idx_capacity: return extend_by = self._idx_capacity self._idx_capacity = self._idx_capacity * 2 LOG.debug( "Buffers: index_slots=%s sprite_slots=%s over-allocation-ratio=%s", self._sprite_index_slots, self._sprite_buffer_slots, self._sprite_index_slots / self._sprite_buffer_slots, ) LOG.debug( "(%s) Increasing index capacity from %s to %s", self._sprite_index_slots, extend_by, self._idx_capacity, ) self._sprite_index_data.extend([0] * extend_by) if self._initialized and self._sprite_index_buf: self._sprite_index_buf.orphan(size=self._idx_capacity * 4) self._sprite_index_changed = True def _update_all(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Update all sprite data. This is faster when adding and moving sprites. This duplicate code, but reduces call overhead, dict lookups etc. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] # position self._sprite_pos_data[slot * 3] = sprite._position[0] self._sprite_pos_data[slot * 3 + 1] = sprite._position[1] self._sprite_pos_data[slot * 3 + 2] = sprite._depth self._sprite_pos_changed = True # size self._sprite_size_data[slot * 2] = sprite._width self._sprite_size_data[slot * 2 + 1] = sprite._height self._sprite_size_changed = True # angle self._sprite_angle_data[slot] = sprite._angle self._sprite_angle_changed = True # color self._sprite_color_data[slot * 4] = sprite._color[0] self._sprite_color_data[slot * 4 + 1] = sprite._color[1] self._sprite_color_data[slot * 4 + 2] = sprite._color[2] self._sprite_color_data[slot * 4 + 3] = sprite._color[3] self._sprite_color_changed = True # Don't deal with textures if spritelist is not initialized. # This can often mean we don't have a context/window yet. if not self._initialized: return if not sprite._texture: return # Ugly syntax makes type checking pass without perf hit from cast tex_slot: int = self._atlas.add( # type: ignore sprite._texture)[0] slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_texture_data[slot] = tex_slot self._sprite_texture_changed = True def _update_texture(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """Make sure we update the texture for this sprite for the next batch drawing""" # We cannot interact with texture atlases unless the context # is created. We defer all texture initialization for later if not self._initialized: return if not sprite._texture: return atlas = self._atlas # Ugly spacing makes type checking work with specificity tex_slot: int = atlas.add( # type: ignore sprite._texture)[0] slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_texture_data[slot] = tex_slot self._sprite_texture_changed = True # Update size in cas the sprite was initialized without size # NOTE: There should be a better way to do this self._sprite_size_data[slot * 2] = sprite._width self._sprite_size_data[slot * 2 + 1] = sprite._height self._sprite_size_changed = True def _update_position(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called when setting initial position of a sprite when added or inserted into the SpriteList. ``update_location`` should be called to move them once the sprites are in the list. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_pos_data[slot * 3] = sprite._position[0] self._sprite_pos_data[slot * 3 + 1] = sprite._position[1] self._sprite_pos_changed = True def _update_position_x(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called when setting initial position of a sprite when added or inserted into the SpriteList. ``update_location`` should be called to move them once the sprites are in the list. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_pos_data[slot * 3] = sprite._position[0] self._sprite_pos_changed = True def _update_position_y(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called when setting initial position of a sprite when added or inserted into the SpriteList. ``update_location`` should be called to move them once the sprites are in the list. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_pos_data[slot * 3 + 1] = sprite._position[1] self._sprite_pos_changed = True def _update_depth(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called by the Sprite class to update the depth of the specified sprite. Necessary for batch drawing of items. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_pos_data[slot * 3 + 2] = sprite._depth self._sprite_pos_changed = True def _update_color(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called by the Sprite class to update position, angle, size and color of the specified sprite. Necessary for batch drawing of items. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_color_data[slot * 4] = int(sprite._color[0]) self._sprite_color_data[slot * 4 + 1] = int(sprite._color[1]) self._sprite_color_data[slot * 4 + 2] = int(sprite._color[2]) self._sprite_color_data[slot * 4 + 3] = int(sprite._color[3] * sprite._visible) self._sprite_color_changed = True def _update_size(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called by the Sprite class to update the size/scale in this sprite. Necessary for batch drawing of items. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_size_data[slot * 2] = sprite._width self._sprite_size_data[slot * 2 + 1] = sprite._height self._sprite_size_changed = True def _update_width(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called by the Sprite class to update the size/scale in this sprite. Necessary for batch drawing of items. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_size_data[slot * 2] = sprite._width self._sprite_size_changed = True def _update_height(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called by the Sprite class to update the size/scale in this sprite. Necessary for batch drawing of items. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_size_data[slot * 2 + 1] = sprite._height self._sprite_size_changed = True def _update_angle(self, sprite: SpriteType) -> None: """ Called by the Sprite class to update the angle in this sprite. Necessary for batch drawing of items. :param sprite: Sprite to update. """ slot = self.sprite_slot[sprite] self._sprite_angle_data[slot] = sprite._angle self._sprite_angle_changed = True